Mozilla Build System Plan of Attack

July 25, 2012 at 11:30 PM | categories: Mozilla, build system | View Comments

Since I published my brain dump post on improving Mozilla's build system for Gecko applications (including Firefox and Firefox OS), there has been some exciting progress.

It wasn't stated in that original post, but the context for that post was to propose a plan in preparation of a meeting between the core contributors to the build system at Mozilla. I'm pleased to report that the plan was generally well-received.

We pretty much all agreed that parts 1, 2, and 3 are all important and we should actively work towards them. Parts 4, 5, and 6 were a bit more contentious. There are some good parts and some bad parts. We're not ready to adopt them just quite yet. (Don't bother reading the original post to look up what these parts corresponded to - I'll cover that later.)

Since that post and meeting, there has also been additional discussion around more specifics. I am going to share with you now where we stand.

BuildSplendid

BuildSplendid is an umbrella term associated with projects/goals to make the developer experience (including building) better - more splendid if you will.

BuildSplendid started as the name of my personal Git branch for hacking on the build system. I'm encouraging others to adopt the term because, well, it is easier to refer to (people like project codenames). If it doesn't stick, that's fine by me - there are other terms that will.

BuildFaster

An important project inside BuildSplendid is BuildFaster.

BuildFaster focuses on the following goals:

  1. Making the existing build system faster, better, stronger (but not harder).
  2. Making changes to the build system to facilitate the future use of alternate build backends (like Tup or Ninja). Work to enable Visual Studio, Xcode, etc project generation also falls here.

The distinction between these goals can be murky. But, I'll try.

Falling squarely in #1 are:

  • Switching the buildbot infrastructure to use pymake on Windows

Falling in #2 are:

  • Making Makefile.in's data-centric
  • Supporting multiple build backends

Conflated between the two are:

  • Ensuring Makefile's no-op if nothing has changed
  • Optimizing existing make rules. This involves merging related functionality as well as eliminating clown shoes in existing rules.

The two goals of BuildFaster roughly map to the short-term and long-term strategies, respectively. There is consensus that recursive make (our existing build backend) does not scale and we will plateau in terms of performance no matter how optimal we make it. That doesn't mean we are giving up on it: there are things we can and should do so our existing non-recursive make backend builds faster.

In parallel, we will also work towards the longer-term solution of supporting alternate build backends. This includes non-recursive make as well as things like Tup, Ninja, and even Visual Studio and Xcode. (I consider non-recursive make to be a separate build backend because changing our existing Makefile.in's to support non-recursive execution effectively means rewriting the input files (Makefile.in's). At that point, you've invented a new build backend.)

For people who casually interact with the build system, these two goals will blend together. It is not important for most to know what bucket something falls under.

BuildFaster Action Items

BuildFaster action items are being tracked in Bugzilla using the [BuildFaster:*] whiteboard annotation.

There is no explicit tracking bug for the short-term goal (#1). Instead, we are relying on the whiteboard annotation.

We are tracking the longer-term goal of supporting alternate build backends at bug 774049.

The most important task to help us reach the goals is to make our Makefile.in's data centric. This means:

  • Makefile.in's must consist of only simple variable assignment
  • Makefile.in's must not rely on being evaluated to perform variable assignment.

Basically, our build config should be defined by static key-value pairs.

This translates to:

  • Move all rules out of Makefile.in's bug 769378
  • Remove use of $(shell) from Makefile.in's bug 769390
  • Remove filesystem functions from Makefile.in's bug 769407
  • And more, as we identify the need

While we have these tracking bugs on file, we still don't have bugs filed that track individual Makefile.in's that need updated. If you are a contributor, you can help by doing your part to file bugs for your Makefile.in's. If your Makefile.in violates the above rules, please file a bug in the Build Config component of the product it is under (typically Core). See the tree of the above bugs for examples.

Also part of BuildFaster (but not relevant to most) is the task of changing the build system to support multiple backends. Currently, pieces like configure assume the Makefile.in to Makefile conversion is always what is wanted. These parts will be worked on by core contributors to the build system and thus aren't of concern to most.

I will be the first to admit that a lot of the work to purify Makefile.in's to be data centric will look like a lot of busy work with little immediate gain. The real benefits to this work will manifest down the road. That being said, removing rules from Makefile.in's and implementing things as rules in rules.mk helps ensure that the implementation is proper (rules.mk is coded by make ninjas and thus probably does things right). This can lead to faster build times.

mozbuild

mozbuild is a Python package that provides an API to the build system.

What mozbuild will contain is still up in the air because it hasn't landed in mozilla-central yet. In the code I'm waiting on review to uplift to mozilla-central, mozbuild contains:

  • An API for invoking the build system backend (e.g. launching make). It basically reimplements client.mk because client.mk sucks and needs to be replaced.
  • An API for launching tests easily. This reimplements functionality in testsuite-targets.mk, but in a much cleaner way. Running a single test can now be done with a single Python function call. This may sound boring, but it is very useful. You just import a module and pass a filesystem path to a test file to a function and a test runs. Boom!
  • Module for extracting compiler warnings from build output and storing in a persisted database for post-build retrieval. Compiler warning tracking \o/
  • Module for converting build system output into structured logs. It records things like time spent in different directories, etc. We could use this for tracking build performance regressions. We just need a arewe*yet.com domain...
  • A replacement for .mozconfig's that sucks less (stronger validation, settings for not just build config, convenient Python API, etc).

And, upcoming features which I haven't yet tried to land in mozilla-central include:

  • API for extracting metadata from Makefile.in's and other frontend files. Want a Python class instance describing the IDLs defined in an individual Makefile.in or across the entire tree? mozbuild can provide that. This functionality will be used to configure alternate build backends.
  • Build backend API which allows for different build backends to be configured (e.g. recursive make, Tup, Ninja, etc). When we support multiple build backends, they'll live in mozbuild.

mozbuild can really be thought of as a clean backend to the build system and related functionality (like running tests). Everything in mozbuild could exist in make files or in .py files littered in build/, config/, etc. But, that would involve maintaining make files and/or not having a cohesive API. I wanted a clean slate that was free from the burdens of the existing world. mozbuild was born.

I concede that there will be non-clear lines of division between mozbuild and other Python packages and/or Mozilla modules. For example, is mozbuild the appropriate location to define an API for taking the existing build configuration and launching a Mochitest? I'm not sure. For now, I'm stuffing functionality inside mozbuild unless there is a clear reason for it to exist elsewhere. If we want to separate (because of module ownership issues, for example), we can do that.

My vision for mozbuild is for it to be the answer to the question how does the Mozilla build system work? You should be able to say, look at the code in python/mozbuild and you will have all the answers.

mozbuild Action Items

The single action item for mozbuild is getting it landed. I have code written that I think is good enough for an initial landing (with obvious shortcomings being addressed in follow-up bugs). It just needs some love from reviewers.

Landing mozbuild is tracked in bug 751795. I initially dropped a monolithic patch. I have since started splitting bits up into bite-sized patches to facilitate faster, smaller reviews. (See the blocking bugs.)

mach

mozbuild is just a Python package - an API. It has no frontend.

Enter mach.

mach is a command-line frontend to mozbuild and beyond.

Currently, mach provides some convenient shortcuts for performing common tasks. e.g. you can run a test by tab-completing to its filename using your shell. It also provides nifty output in supported terminals, including colorizing and a basic progress indicator during building.

You can think of mach as a replacement for client.mk and other make targets. But, mach's purpose doesn't end there. My vision for mach is for it to be the one-stop shop for all your mozilla-central interaction needs.

From a mozilla-central tree, you should be able to type ./mach and do whatever you need to do. This could be building Firefox, running tests, uploading a patch to Bugzilla, etc.

I'm capturing ideas for mach features in bug 774108.

mach Action Items

mach is in the same boat as mozbuild: it's waiting for reviewer love. If you are interested in reviewing it, please let me know.

Once mach lands, I will be looking to the larger community to improve it. I want people to go wild implementing features. I believe that mach will have a significant positive impact on driving contributions to Mozilla because it will make the process much more streamlined and less prone to error. I think it is a no-brainer to check in mach as soon as possible so these wins can be realized.

There is an open question of who will own mach in terms of module ownership. mach isn't really part of anything. Sure, it interacts with the build system, testing code, tools, etc. But, it isn't actually part of any of that. Maybe a new module will be created for it. I'm not familiar with how the modules system works and I would love to chat with someone about options here.

Project Interaction

How are all of these projects related?

BuildFaster is what everyone is working on today. It currently focuses on making the existing recursive make based build backend faster using whatever means necessary. BuildFaster could theoretically evolve to cover other build backends (like non-recursive make). Time will tell what falls under the BuildFaster banner.

mozbuild is immediately focused on providing the functionality to enable mach to land.

mach is about improving the overall developer experience when it comes to contributing to Firefox and other in-tree applications (like Firefox OS). It's related to the build system in that it provides a nice frontend to it. That's the only relationship. mach isn't part of the build system (at least not yet - it may eventually be used to perform actions on buildbot machines).

Down the road, mozbuild will gain lots of new features core to the build system. It will learn how to extract metadata from Makefile.in's which can be used by other build backends. It will define a build backend interface and the various build backends will be implemented in mozbuild. Aspects of the existing build system currently implemented in make files or in various Python files scattered across the tree will be added to mozbuild and exposed with a clean, reusable, and testable API.

Today, BuildFaster is the important project with all the attention. When mach lands, it will (hopefully) gather a lot of attention. But, it will be from a different group (the larger contributor community - not just build system people).

mozbuild today is only needed to support mach. But, once mozbuild lands and mach is on its own, mozbuild's purpose will shift to support BuildFaster and other activities under the BuildSplendid banner.

Conclusion

We have a lot of work ahead of us. Please look at the bugs linked above and help out in any way you can.

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